THC is the best-known cannabinoid and is the primary psychoactive compound. It has also been found to be neuroprotective with analgesic (pain relieving) effects.
Many of the medical benefits attributed to cannabis are because of CBD. Many strains are selectively bred to increase their CBD content. CBD is not psychoactive.
CBN is also non-psychoactive and is generally attributed with a sedative effect. The typical amount of CBN found in most samples of cannabis is less than 1%.
THCA is the most prominent compound in fresh, undried cannabis. While the compound does not have psychoactive effects in its own right, it does have anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects.
THCV is commonly believed to be an appetite suppressant. In addition, recent research suggests that this compound may be helpful in treating metabolic disorders including diabetes.
CBG is a non-physcoactive cannabinoid. Early results suggest it plays a role in fighting glaucoma symptoms, inflamed bowels and potentially as treatment for bacterial infections like MRSA.
CBC is perhaps the least understood cannabinoid, but potentially among the most important. It is believed to stimulate bone growth, as well has inhibit inflammation and pain.
CBDA is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid believed to have anti-inflammatory properties. The compound is also thought offer benefits when dealing with nausea and vomiting.